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胡蜂也會邏輯推理

文章來源:中國科學報 宗華   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  邏輯推理是一種復雜的行為,通常被認為僅限于具有復雜神經系統的動物。但一項新的研究表明,胡蜂可以運用某種邏輯推理。這在無脊椎動物中尚屬首次。相關成果日前發表于英國《皇家學會生物學報》。

  這種推理類型叫做傳遞性推理。這是人類很容易做到的事情:如果你知道A比B大,B比C大,那么就能推斷出A比C大。

  美國密歇根大學的Elizabeth Tibbets及其團隊將40只胡蜂(23只造紙胡蜂和17只長足胡蜂)分別放入一個淺的矩形容器中。容器有5種顏色,兩端分別被標記上從A到E的5個字母。電擊槍被放置在每對字母中排在字母表后面的容器側面。

  胡蜂首先接受字母相鄰的訓練——A/B、B/C、C/D和D/E。在10次試驗后,它們接受了B/D和A/E測試,這意味著其必須使用邏輯來避免電擊。

  總的來說,65%的胡蜂能正確選擇B而不是D。這比隨機選擇要好。Tibbets介紹說,胡蜂選擇A / E的比例也大致相同,但由于A總是免于受到電擊,而E總是提供電擊,因此這組測試的顯著性可能沒那么好。

  胡蜂之所以進化出這種能力,可能因為它們的社會結構。“它們花了大量時間來爭奪統治地位,而傳遞性推理對于弄清統治關系非常重要。”Tibbets表示。

  這種類型的研究已在蜜蜂身上進行過,但沒有發現它們使用相同的推理過程。Tibbets說,或許這是因為它們沒有形成同樣的統治階層。




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